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Lipid Nanoparticles and Liposomes: Delivering Clinical Breakthroughs

Liposomes have long been established as an effective drug delivery vehicle for API with poor pharmacokinetics, limited bioavailability or solubility, and high toxicity. Discovered in the 1960s by Alec D. Bangham, liposomes were originally utilized as an artificial bilayer to study membranes' biophysical properties. The liposome morphology can be described as an aqueous core surrounded by one or ma

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Pfizer BioNTech Covid-19 Lipid Nanoparticle Components and Vaccine Administration

In 2020-2021, the lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) emphasized as the forefront of science and technology when Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna vaccines used those formulations for delivering messenger RNA (mRNA) and protected the mRNA molecules from degradation. Highly encapsulated LNP-mRNA led to effectiveness with intracellular delivery and endosomal escape in the nucleoside-modified mRNA-LNP. Specifically the lipid nanoparticle in Pfizer - BioNTech vaccines included the following formulation components: Potassium chloride Monobasic potassium phosphate Sodium chloride Dibasic sodium phosphate dihydrate Sucrose Lipid 1: ((4-hydroxybutyl)azanediyl)bis(hexane-6,1-diyl)bis(2- hexyldecanoate), Lipid 2: 2-[(polyethylene glycol)-2000]-N,N-ditetradecylacetamide, 1,2-distearoyl-snglycero-3-phosphocholine, and cholesterol) The Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine is stored in a freezing condition to protect the mRNA stability, and it is supplied as a frozen [between -80°C to -60°C (- 112°F to -76°F)] in five-dose vials....

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Overview of Pharmaceutical Drug Discovery and Development

Established and defined by the US Food and Drug Administration (US-FDA), drug development includes the five stages below: Discovery and Development Preclinical Research Clinical Research FDA Review FDA Post-Market and Safety Monitoring  Discovery and Development: In this step, researchers in academic institutions, government laboratories, and pharmaceutical companies' Research and Development discover new pharmaceutical drugs and formulations. In this step, the pharmaceutical development purpose is to stop or reverse the effect of a specific disease or illness. In these steps, experiments are designed with various biomolecules to identify the benefits of a particular formulation that works for a disease or condition. Moreover, the unanticipated effect of those formulations is recognized for any adverse effects on patients. Lastly, the new technologies are incorporated...

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